Direct and Indirect speech

Narration

In English, a statement can be written in two different ways; When a
spoken by any person, is written in his words, then it is called direct speech
and it is written within inverted commas.

Ex: I said to him, “you are a good boy”.

And when the statement spoken by any person and else with some modification, is called Indirect speech.

Ex: I told him that he was a good boy.

Rules Of Narration

 

Points to be remember

1. The verb outside the inverted commas is called the ‘reporting verb’,

2. The verb or sentence inside the inverted commas is called the ‘reported
speech’.

3. If the reporting verb is in present or future tense. There will be no change
in the tense of the reported speech.

4. If the reporting verb is in past tense, the tense in the reported speech wr
be changed.

5. Pronouns used in the reported speech are changed.

(i) First person according to the subject.
(ii) Second person according to the object.
(iii) Third person, No change.

6. Change in adverbs if the reported verb is in past tense.

Direct Speech
Indirect Speech
now
Then
here
There
here after
there after
this
That
these
Those
ago
Before
thus
So
to-day
that day
to-night
that night
last night
the previous night
yesterday
the day before (or)
the previous day
tomorrow
the next day (or)
the following day
last week
the week before (or)
the previous week
next week
the week after (or)
the following week
last month
the month before (or)
the previous month
next month
a month after
hither
Thither
hence
Thence

7. Reporting verb is also changed If say to/ says to said to are
used as reporting verb, they are changed into tell/tells/told’
respectively.

8. Change inverted commas into the conjunction (connector) that.

9. Change in Modal verbs when reporting verb is in past tense.
Can – Could
May — Might
Shall — Should Will — Would
Has to /have to — had to

A. Changes into Interrogative Sentence

(1) If the reported speech is started with a helping verb.
Change inverted commas into ‘if /Whether in place
of that.

Change interrogative sentence into assertive sentence.
Reporting verb (said to) is also changed into asked/interrogated/enquired etc.

Ex:
Rahul said to Mohit, “Can you come to the office now?”
(Direct)
Rahul asked Mohit if he could come to the office then.
(Indirect)

(2) If the reported speech is started with a wh-word (Question word), replace inverted commas with that word.
Change interrogative sentence into assertive sentence.
Don’t use the connector ‘that.

Ex:
He said to his friend, “why did he not eat the food?”
(Direct)
He asked his friend why he had not eaten the food.
(Indirect)

B. Changes into Imperative Sentences

Reporting verb (said to) is changed into ordered/requested/allowed/advised/ suggested etc according to the meaning/ sense of the sentence.

Change inverted commas into ‘to’.

There will be no change in the other part of reported speech or it will be changed according to the previous rules of tense.

Ex:
 My father said to me, “Work hard for your exams.”(Direct)
 My father advised me to work hard for my exams.(Indirect)

C. Changes into Optative Sentences

Reporting verb (said to) is changed into blessed/cursed/bade/wished/prayed etc according to the meaning/sense of the sentence.

Change inverted commas into ‘that’.

Change optative sentence into assertive sentence.

Ex:
My grandfather said to me, “May you live long. (Direct)
My grand father blessed me that I might live long. (Indirect)

D. Changes in Exclamatory Sentences

Reporting verb (said to) is changed into exclaimed with joy/ sorrow/ anger/ surprise/ applause-etc. according to the meaning/ sense of the sentence.

• Change inverted commas into ‘that’.

• Change the reported speech into assertive sentence.

Ex:
He said, “Hurrah! we won the match.(Direct)
He exclaimed with joy that they had won the match(Indirect).

E. Changes in the sentence starting with ‘Let’

Reporting verb (said to) is changed into proposed/requested/suggested/wished/desired … etc. according to the meaning/sense of the sentence.

Change inverted commas into ‘that’.

‘Let’ is changed into ‘should’ which comes after pronoun.

Ex:
He said, “Let us pray together.”
(Direct)
He proposed that they should pray together.
(Indirect)

Try Yourself

See answer table below

Try Yourself

Question 1-

John said to me, “Where have you been last night?”

(a) John asked me where had I been the previous night.

(b) John asked me where I have been the previous night.

(c) John asked me where I am the previous night

(d) John asked me where I had been the previous night

Try Yourself

Question 2-

I’m taking my children to the zoo tomorrow”, she said, “to see the baby white tiger.”

(a) She said that she will take the children to the zoo to see the baby white tiger tomorrow.

(b) She said that she would take the children to the zoo the next day to see the baby white tiger.

(c) She said that she was taking her children to the zoo the next day to see the baby white tiger.

(d) She said that she was taking the children to the zoo that day to see the baby while tiger.

Try Yourself

Question 3-

She said, “Mother, please cook me something nice today”.

(a) She told her mother to cook her something nice today.

(b) She ordered her mother to cook her something nice that day.

(c) She requested her mother to cook her something nice that day.

(d) She asked her mother if she could cook her something nice that day.

Try Yourself

Question 4-

John said, “I shall be 21 tomorrow.” 

(a) John said that he would be 21 tomorrow

(b) John said that he would be 21 the following day

(c) John said that he should be 21 the following day

(d) John said that I shall be 21 tomorrow

Try Yourself

Question 5-

She asked, “Is the secretary coming to the meeting?”

(a) She asked that the secretary was coming to the meeting

 (b) She asked that if the secretary was coming to the meeting.

(c) She asked if the secretary is coming to the meeting.

(d) She asked if the secretary was coming to the meeting.

Try Yourself

Question 6-

The convict said, “Let me speak freely please.”

(a) The convict suggested that he must be allowed to speak freely.

(b) The convict requested that he must be allowed to speak freely.

(c) The convict requested that he be allowed to speak freely.

(d) The convict proposed that he might be allowed to speak freely

Answer Table:

1d
2c
3c
4b
5d
6b

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