Muslim Invasion in India
Mohammad Bin Qasim invaded India in AD 712, Ho was the first Muslim to invade India and conquered Sindh which became part of Omayyad Khilafat.
Mahmud of Ghazni was the first Turk to invade India (AD 1998). He led about 17 expeditions to India and raided the most celebrated Hindu temple of Somnath.
Second Turk invasion was led by Mohammad Ghori (AD 1175). He may be considered as the ‘founder of Muslim rule in India’.
Delhi Sultanate (1206-1526 AD)
The period of Delhi Sultanate can be divided into 5 distinct dynasties, which includes
(i) The Slave dynasty
(ii) The Khilji dynasty
(iii) The Tughlaq dynasty
(iv) The Sayyid dynasty
(v) The Lodhi dynasty.
The Slave Dynasty (l206-1290)
Qutubuddin Aibak (1206-10)
Outubuddin Aibak founded the Slave dynasty in 1206. He was given the title of Lakh Bakhsh’ (giver of Lakhs) for his generosity.
He died in 1210 while playing polo (Chaugan).
He patronised writers like Hasan-un-Nizami (book Taj-ul-Massir), Fakhruddin (book Tarikh-i-Mubarak Shahi) and began the construction of Qutub Minar and also constructed 2 mosques namely Quwat-ul-lslam (Delhi) and Adhai din ka Jhonpra (Ajmer).
Shamsuddin Iltutmish, a slave of Qutubuddin Aibak, Occupied the throne of Delhi in 1211, after removing Aram Baksh. He shifted his capital from Lahore to Delhi.
He introduced new system of coinage namely Tanka (silver coin), Jittal (copper coin), organised the lqta system and set up official mobility called Chahalgani.
He patronised Minhaj-us-Siraj (book Tabaq-i-Nasiri) and completed the construction of Qutub Minar. He was known as ‘Slave of Slave’.
Razia Sultan (le36-40)
Razia Sultan ascended the throne in AD 1236 by deposing Ruknuddin (her brother). She became the “first and the only Muslim lady who ever ruled India'”.
The Governors of Multan, Badaun, Hansi and Lahore openly revolted against her. She became the victim of a conspiracy designed by Atunia of Bhatinada and was assasinated in
AD 1240 at Kaithal.
Ghiyasuddin Balban (l266-87)
Balban ascended the throne in 1266 and assumed the title of Zil-llahi (Shadow of God).
He established the military department Diwan-i-arz, broke the power of Chalisa and introduced new form of salutation namely Sijda and Paibos.
He died fighting the mongolians in 1285 while Tughril (Slave of Balban) was captured and beheaded.
The Khilji Dynasty (AD 1290-1320)
Jalaluddin Khilji was the founder of Khilji Dynasty.
Alauddin Khilji (AD 1296-1316)
Alauddin Khilji (Son in Law of Jalaluddin Khilji) succeded the throne in 1296 and proclaimed “Kingship knows no Kinship.
Alauddin issued four ordinances which included: reorganisation of the spy system, prohibition on the use of wine, confiscating the properties of Noble classes, and nobles- were not allowed to inter-marry without his permission.
He introduced the system of Dagh, Chehra and created the post of Mustakharaj (revenue collector).
He was the first Turkish Sultan to separate religion from politics and assumed the title of Sikander-i-Sani’. His court poets include Amir Khusrau and Mir Hassan Dehlvi and built Alai Darwaza, capital city of Siri, Hauz Khaz (Delhi) and an enterance door to Qutub Minar.
Khusrau Khan was the last King of the Khilji dynasty.
The Tughlaq Dynasty (AD 1320-1414)
Ghazi Malik ascended the throne after killing the Khusrau Khan (the last Khilji ruler) and assumed the title of ‘Ghiyassuddin Tughlaq.
Mohammad Bin Tughlaq (AD 1325-1351)
Ghiyassuddin Tughlaq was succeeded by his son Jauna (Mohammad Bin Tughlaq) who assended the throne in 1325.
He undertook 5 ambitious projects which include taxation in the Doab, shifting capital from Delhi to Devagiri, introduction of token currency, Khurasan expedition, Qarchil expedition.
Firoz Shah Tughlaq (AD 1351-1388)
He succeeded Mohammad Bin Tughlaq and built four new towns of Firozabad, Fatehabad, Jaunpur and Hisar.
He introduced two new coins namely Adha, Bikh and introduce four kinds of taxes, which are Khams, Zakat, Kharaj and Jizya.
He wrote a book ‘Fatuhat Firozshahi’, established department of Diwan-i-Khairat and a hospital (Dar-ul-Shifa).
The Sayyid Dynasty (AD 1414-1451)
Taimur’s nominee Khizr Khan captured Delhi and was proclaimed the new Sultan. He was succeeded by Mubarak Shah, Muhammad Shah and Alam Shah (The last Sayyid ruler).
The Lodhi Dynasty (AD 1451-1526)
Bahlol Lodhi was the founder of this dynasty.
Sikander Lodhi (Son of Bahlol Lodhi) shifted his capital from Delhi to Agra (a city founded by him)
His pen-name was ‘Gulrukhi and introduced unit of measurement Gaz-i-Sikandari.
Ibrahim Lodhi was the last Sultan of Delhi and the last ruler of Lodhi dynasty. He was defeated by Babur in the first Battle of Panipat in 1526.