Modern History of India

Advent of Europeans In India


Vasco-da-Gama discovered the cape route from Europe to India and reached Calicut on 17th May, 1498 where he was received by Zamorin (Hlindu ruler of Calicut).

Cochin was their early capital which was later replaced by Goa in 1510 (during Nino da Cunha). They had their trading stations at Cochin, Calicut and Cannanore.

Francisco de Almeida (introduced policy of blue water) was the first Governor of Portuguese, and Alfonso-d-Albuquerque introduced the policy of Imperialism and abolished sati in Goa.

The famous Jesuit Saint Francisco Xavier arrived in India with Nino da Cunha (Portugese Governor).

The King of Portuguese gave Bombay in dowry to Charles II (England) when he married the former’s sister.


The Dutch East India Company was formed in 1602, by Dutch Parliament, which empowered it to make wars, conclude treaties built fortresses and acquired territories.

They set up their first factory at Masulipatnam (1605 )later at Pulicat, Surat, Karaikal, Chinsura, Cochin,
Kasimbazar etc.


English East India Company was formed in 1600 under the Royal Charter by Queen Elizabeth with the monopoly to trade East for 15 years.

Captain William Hawkins and Sir Thomas Roe visited Jahangir’s court to obtain Farman to trade in India in year 1609 and 1615 respectively. Resulting into the establishment of first factory at Surat (1609).

 In South India, the factories were established at Masulipatnam in 1611 and at Armagaon (near Pulicat
in 1626).


Danish East India company was formed in 1616, with their headquarters at Serampore.

They established their factories at Masulipatnam and Porto Novo.


The French East India Company was formed in 1664, by Colbert (under the State Patronage). They established their first factory at Surat in 1668 by Francois Caron and factory at Masulipatnam was set
up in 1669.

The French power was revived under the French Governors Lenoir and Dumas (between 1720-1742), who occupied Mahe (Malabar), Yanam (Coromandel
and Karaikal (TN).

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